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CLEP Chemistry 1

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. For most substances - when a hot concentrated solution is cooled - the excess solid ________. This is useful in purification of the solute.

2. When a system at equilibrium is disturbed by adding or removing one of hte substances - all the concentrations will change until a new equilibrium point is reached with the same value of Keq.

3. A chemical reaction formed from the breakdown of a compound into its individual elements or compounds.

4. The degree of randomness of a system is represented by a thermodynamic quantity called? the greater the randomness - the greater the _______.

5. Deviations from Boyles law that occur with real gases represent _______ behavior.

6. _____ bonds are present in molecules containing double or triple bonds.

7. The energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom in its ground state.

8. In titration - this is the point at which a particular indicator changes color.

9. The relatively weak attractive forces between molecules that are apparent only when the molecules approach one another closely (usually at low temperatures and high pressure).

10. The maximum work derived from any change will be obtained only if the process is carried out in a reversible manner. All real - spontaneous changes are therefore not reversible - and the work that can be derived from an irreversible change is alway l

11. The process of determining the amount of a solution of known concentration that is required to react completely with a certain amount of a sample that is being analyzed.

12. The change in enthalpy of an exothermic reaction is ________.

13. The solubility of gases in liquid or solid solvents always increases with ________ pressure.

14. A theory of the hydrogen atom stating that the electron can exist in only certain stable energy levels and that when the electronic state of the atom changes - it must absorb or emit exactly that amound of energy equal to the difference betweent he f

15. The particular portion of the universe on which we wish to focus our attention. Everything else is called the surroundings.

16. This process occurs when the system is thermally isolated so that no heat enters or leaves.

17. The average kinetic energy of all the molecules collectively is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas. The average kinetic energy of equal numbers of molecules of any gas is the same at the same temperature.

18. For a ________ reaction - the energy liberated in the exothermic reaction equals the energy absorbed in the endothermic reaction.

19. The process of mixing different orbitals of the same atom to form a new set of equivalent orbitals.

20. The law stating that change in internal energy is equal to the difference between the energy supplied toi the system as heat and the energy removed from the system as work performed on the surroundings.

21. A law that states that for a given mass of gas - the volume is proportional to the pressure and absolute temperature.

22. The pressure of a gas is the result of collisions between the gas molecules and the walls of the container.

23. In an endothermic process - energy is absorbed and ^E is _______.

24. A catalyst affects a chemical reaction by lowering the _____ _____ for both the forward and the reverse reactions equally.

25. Gases are composed of tiny - invisible molecules that are widely separated from one another in otherwise empty space.

26. When the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation - the system is in __________.

27. Rays made up of electrons in basic electron charges.

28. The vapor pressure increases with increasing _____.

29. In a _______ expansion of a gas - the opposing pressure is virtually equal to the pressure exerted by the gas. It is ______ because any slight increase in the external pressure will reverse the process and cause compression to occure.

30. *The temperature affects chemical reactions with an increase of ___degrees C above room temperature - causing the reaction rate to double.

31. The heat change during a process carried out at a constant pressure.

32. This is due to the way positive charges of one molecule attract the negative charges of another molecule. Compounds of the solid state that are bound mainly by this type of attractive have soft crystals - are easily deformed - and vaporize easily.

33. Increase in the concentrations of reactants shifts the equilibrium to the ______ - thus increasing the amount of products formed.

34. When a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom - it will become partially _____-charged - and will be attracted to neighboring electron pairs. This creates a hydrogen bond. The more polar the molecule - the more effective the hydroge

35. A law stating that at constant pressure - the volume of a given quantity of a gas varies directly with the temperature.

36. This process occurs when the system is maintained at the same temperature throughout an experiment.

37. A process that occurs whent eh system is maintained at constant pressure.

38. Another way the second law is stated is that in any spontaneous change - the amount of free energy available ______.

39. Increasing the pressure on a system at equilibrium will cause a shift in the position of equilibrium in the direction of the fewest number of ______ of gaseous reactants or products.

40. When solids are heated at certain perssures - some solids vaporize directly without passing through the liquid phase.

41. Cells that convert electrical energy into chemical energy.

42. For a cell at concentrations and conditions other than standard - a potential can be calculated using this equation.

43. The change in enthalpy of an endothermic reaction is ________.

44. In a closed system - when the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal - the system is in ____ ______.

45. _______ has very little effect on the solubility of liquids or solids in liquid solvents.

46. Metals have electronegativities less than ____

47. Because of the low intermolecular forces - the melting points are low and evaporation takes place so easily that it may occur at room temperature.

48. The ________ of an element is a number that measerures the relative strength in which the atoms of the element attract valence electrons in a chemical bond - on a scale of 0-4.

49. For a solution in which a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in a solvent - the vapor pressure is due only to the vapor of the solvent above the solution. This vapor pressure is given by _______ law.

50. **Five factors that affect reaction rates: 1. The nature of the reactants and products. 2. The surface area exposed. 3. The concentrations. 4. The temperature. 5. The catalyst.