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CLEP Chemistry 1

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A valence theory that permits the geometric arrangement of atoms - or groups of atoms - about some central atom to be determined solely by considering the repulsions between the electron pairs present in the valence shell of the central atom.

2. When solids are heated at certain perssures - some solids vaporize directly without passing through the liquid phase.

3. If an inert gas is introduced into a reaction vessel containing other gases at equilibrium - it will cause an increase in the ______ _____ within the container - but the increase will not affect the position of equilibrium.

4. Any spontaneous change in a chemical reaction will decrease the amount of free energy toward _______ as the process proceeds towards equilibrium.

5. **As we proceed to the right of the table - ______-forming properties decrease and _____-forming properties increase.

6. The change in enthalpy of an exothermic reaction is ________.

7. For a solution in which a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in a solvent - the vapor pressure is due only to the vapor of the solvent above the solution. This vapor pressure is given by _______ law.

8. The process of determining the amount of a solution of known concentration that is required to react completely with a certain amount of a sample that is being analyzed.

9. A catalyst lowers the ______ _____ _____ that must be overcome in order for the reaction to proceed. It merely speeds the approach to equilibrium but does not change Keq at all.

10. The most active metals are found in what corner of the periodic table?

11. The molecules in a gas are in constant - continueous - random - and straight-line motion.

12. Cells that convert electrical energy into chemical energy.

13. *The electrons found in the outermost shell are called _____ electrons. When these electrons are lost or partially lost through sharing - the oxidation state is assigned a positive value for the element. If valence electrons are gained or partially g

14. The freezing point - boiling point - and vapor pressure of a solution differ from those of the pure solvent by amounts which are directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solute.

15. The law stating that in any spontaneous process there is an increase in the entropy of the universe.

16. For most substances - when a hot concentrated solution is cooled - the excess solid ________. This is useful in purification of the solute.

17. Gases are composed of tiny - invisible molecules that are widely separated from one another in otherwise empty space.

18. The molecules in a gas collide with one another - but the collisions are perfectly elastic (they result in no net loss of energy).

19. The ________ of an element is a number that measerures the relative strength in which the atoms of the element attract valence electrons in a chemical bond - on a scale of 0-4.

20. *The temperature affects chemical reactions with an increase of ___degrees C above room temperature - causing the reaction rate to double.

21. When an electron moves from an excited state to the ground state - it _______ energy.

22. A law stating that the vapor pressure of a solution at a particular temperature is equal to teh mole fraction of the solvent in the liquid phase multiplied by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the same temperature.

23. In an endothermic process - energy is absorbed and ^E is _______.

24. The _____ speed up the rate of a chemical reaction but do not change the equilibrium constant - it simply speeds up the rate of approach to equilibrium.

25. Another way the second law is stated is that in any spontaneous change - the amount of free energy available ______.

26. The temperature at which the pressure of vapor escaping from the liquid equals atmospheric pressure.

27. In titration - this point occurs when equal numbers of equivalents of acid and base have been reacted. The solution at this point is neutral because neither of the ions of the salt in solution undergoes hydrolysis.

28. This process occurs when the system is maintained at the same temperature throughout an experiment.

29. A law stating that at a constant temperature - the volume of a gas in inversely proportiona to the pressure.

30. A chemical reaction where one substance is displacing another. ex: Fe + CuSo4 -> FeSo4 + Cu.

31. For a ________ reaction - the energy liberated in the exothermic reaction equals the energy absorbed in the endothermic reaction.

32. A chemical reaction where there is an actual exchange of partners to form new compounds. ex: AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl + NaNO3.

33. In titration - this is the point at which a particular indicator changes color.

34. *Each wave function corresponds to a certain electron energy and describes a region about the nucleus (orbital) where an electron having that energy may be found.

35. This law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in mixture.

36. In a closed system - when the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal - the system is in ____ ______.

37. Liquids with strong attractive forces have ______ boiling points.

38. A principle stating that when a system at equilibrium is disturbed by the application of a stress (change in temperature - pressure - or concentration) it reacts to minimize the stress and attain a new equilibrium position.

39. *The nature of the reactants and products affect chemical reactions because some elements and compounds have bonds that when broken/formed - react more rapidly with each other than others.

40. _____ bonds are present in molecules containing double or triple bonds.

41. A pure crystal of elemental metal consists of roughly Avogrado's number of atoms held together by ________ bonds.

42. If this law was strictly obeyed - gases would not condense when they are cooled. This means that gases behave in an ideal fashion only at relatively high temperatures and low pressures.

43. The relatively weak attractive forces between molecules that are apparent only when the molecules approach one another closely (usually at low temperatures and high pressure).

44. Reactions that do not occur spontaneously can be forced to take place by supplying energy with an external current.

45. The enthalpy changes associated with the reactions that correspond to the formation of a substance from its free elements are called?

46. A theory of the hydrogen atom stating that the electron can exist in only certain stable energy levels and that when the electronic state of the atom changes - it must absorb or emit exactly that amound of energy equal to the difference betweent he f

47. Electronegativities ________ from left to right in a period.

48. The process of mixing different orbitals of the same atom to form a new set of equivalent orbitals.

49. The pressure exerted by the gas molecules when they are in equilibrium with the liquid.

50. The pressure of a gas is the result of collisions between the gas molecules and the walls of the container.