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CLEP Chemistry 2

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Three types of natural radioactive decay include?

2. This kind of hybridization uses the s orbital and one of the p orbitals from carbon's second energy level to combine together to make two hybrid orbitals. Those hybrid orbitals form a straight line.They are exactly opposite one another from the cente

3. Isotopes that are formed by the interaction of cosmic rays with the nucleus of an atom. These can be used for dating purposes and for use as natural tracers. It is possible to obtain the origin of bullets - ages of ice samples/rocks - and the diet of

4. A ___bond is weaker than a ____ bond - but the combination of pi and sigma bond is stronger than either bond by itself. The enhanced strength of a multiple bond versus a single (sigma bond) is indicated in many ways - but most obviously by a contract

5. A type of radiation that is a stream of electrons. When a particle is ejected - a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton - so the mass number of the nucleus is unchanged - but the atomic number increases by one unit.

6. A bond that shares an electron pair - in the space above and below the sigma bond. It results from parallel orbitals.

7. Alpha and beta emission are often accompanied by gamma emission - as an excited nucleus drops to a lower and more _____ energy state.

8. This kind of hybridization that uses the s orbital and two of the p orbitals from the second energy level of carbon to form three hybrid orbitals.It has three hybrid orbitals and there is also an unchanged p orbital that is not shown here. The geomet

9. A theory explains macroscopic properties of gases - such as pressure - temperature - or volume - by considering their molecular composition and motion. Essentially - the theory posits that pressure is due not to static repulsion between molecules - a

10. Electrons in a molecule or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or one covalent bond. They are contained within an orbital that extends over several adjacent atoms.

11. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process (radioactivity) are called?

12. One of the three fundamental states of matter - in which matter has no definite shape - is very fluid - and has a density about 0.1% that of liquids.

13. Atoms connected via a double bond or triple bond have - in addition to one sigma bond - one or two ___ bonds - respectively.

14. They have neither a definite size nor shape - whereas ordinary solids have both a definite size and a definite shape - and liquids have a definite size - or volume - even though they adapt their shape to that of the container in which they are placed

15. In biology - these isotopes have the advantages of being detectable in very low quantities - in being easily measured by scintillation counting or other radiochemical methods - and in being localizable to particular regions of a cell - and quantifiab

16. Term in chemistry used to explain properties of the octet rule when a single Lewis structure is inadequate. An average of two of more Lewis structures which differ only in the position of their electrons.

17. The distinguishing feature of this type of bond is that the overlap region lies directly between the two nuclei of both shared atoms.

18. In biology - these isotopes have the advantage of not delivering a radiation dose to the system being studied; however - a significant excess of them in the organ or organism might still interfere with its functionality - and the availability of suff

19. There are no pi bonds in a _________ - only a sigma bond.

20. A way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis formula. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing structur

21. An isotopic substitution will greatly modify the reaction rate - providing clues to the pathway of the reaction.The advantage of isotopic substitution is that this is the least disturbing structural change that can be effected in a molecule.

22. A simple chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells - giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas.

23. Rule: The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants equals the sum of the mass numbers of the products.

24. Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called?

25. This equation shows how a nucleus gains or loses subatomic particles.

26. A type of radiation that consists of a stream of positively charged particles - which have an atomic mass of 4 and a charge of +2 (a helium nucleus). When the particle is ejected from a nucleus - the mass number of the nucleus decreases by four units

27. The _______ exerted by a gas is the result of the innumerable impacts of the molecules on the container walls and appears steady to human senses because so many collisions occur each second on all sections of the walls.

28. The time required for a radioactive element to decay to half of the original amount - reduced into a lighter element.

29. Although many of the elements react by gaining - losing or sharing electrons until they have achieved a valence shell electron configuration with a full octet (8) of electrons - there are many noteworthy exceptions to the ____ rule.

30. The process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles (ionizing radiation). The emission is spontaneous - in that the nucleus decays without collision with another particle or atom. The decay is a stochastic (i.e

31. A type of radiation that are high-energy photons with a very short wavelength (0.0005 to 0.1 nm). The emission of this radiation results from an energy change within the atomic nucleus. This type of emission changes neither the atomic number nor the

32. A theory that describes gas as a large number of small particles (atoms or molecules) - all of which are in constant - random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container.

33. A covalent bond in which the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms. It results from orbitals that point toward each other.

34. Structures that show each atom and its position in the structure of the molecule using its chemical symbol. Lines are drawn between atoms that are bonded to one another (pairs of dots can be used instead of lines). Excess electrons that form lone pai

35. The strongest type of covalent chemical bond -in which electrons are shared between atoms.

36. The property of a compound having simultaneously the characteristics of two or more structural forms that differ only in the distribution of electrons. Such compounds are highly stable and cannot be properly represented by a single structural formula

37. Diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule. They are similar to electron dot diagrams in that the valence electrons in lone pairs are represented as dots - but they also c

38. A covalent chemical bond where two lobes of one involved electron orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved electron orbital.

39. In high quantities they require precautions to guard the workers from the effects of radiation

40. In biology - the stable isotope of hydrogen - is a stable tracer - the concentration of which can be measured by mass spectroscopy or NMR. It is incorporated into all cellular structures.

41. Typically - the isotopic substitution is made with an atom that takes part in the reaction. This will produce a primary isotope effect. If the substitution is made with an atom that does not directly participate in the reaction - a secondary isotope

42. There is one pi bond and one sigma bond in a ____________.

43. A type of hybridization that results from the combination of the s orbital and all three p orbitals in the second energy level of carbon - resulting in four hybrid orbitals and occurs when a carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms. The geometric ar

44. The time required to convert one half of a reactant to product. The term is commonly applied to radioactive decay - where the reactant is the parent isotope and the product is a daughter isotope.

45. They consist of a vast number of molecules moving chaotically in all directions and colliding with one another and with the walls of their container. Beyond this - there is no structure

46. While the particles making up a gas are too small to be visible - the jittering motion of pollen grains or dust particles which can be seen under a microscope - known as Brownian motion - results directly from collisions between the particle and gas

47. Replacing normal hydrogen (protons) by deuterium within a molecule causes the molecular vibrational frequency of X-H bonds to decrease - which leads to a decrease in vibrational zero-point energy. This can lead to a decrease in the reaction rate if t

48. More subtle properties of gas - such as heat conductivity - viscosity (resistance to flow) - and diffusion are attributed to the molecules themselves carrying the mechanical quantities of energy - momentum - and mass - respectively.

49. This is widely used for diagnostic purposes in medicine - and can provide detailed images of the inside of a person without inflicting any radiation upon them. In a medical setting - NMR is often known simply as 'magnetic resonance' imaging - as the

50. In biology - the stable isotope of nitrogen - has also been used. It is incorporated mainly into proteins.