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CLEP Chemistry: Equations Equilibrium Thermodynamics And Kinetics

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. The __ __ __ is responsible for the reduction in solubility of an ionic precipitate when a soluble compound combining one of the ions of the precipitate is added to the solution in equilibrium with the precipitate.

2. The energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure).

3. A __ __ exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products - but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate - meaning there is no net change. It is a particular example of a system in a steady state.

4. Or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place. For example - the oxidation of iron under the atmosphere is a slow reaction that can take many years - but the combustion of butane in a fire is a

5. The proportionality constant in the rate law equation that describes the relationship between the rate of a step in a chemical reaction and the product of the concentrations of the reactants consumed in that step.

6. The mathematical product of the concentrations of the products of a reaction divided by the mathematical product of the concentrations of the reactants of a reaction AT ANY MOMENT IN TIME. That is - this is basically the equilibrium constant expressi

7. The fraction of the total pressure of a mixture of gases that is due to one component of the mixture.

8. Are equations that show only the soluble - strong electrolytes reacting (these are represented as ions) and omit the spectator ions - which go through the reaction unchanged. As soon as you see a Li - Na - K - Rb - Cs - or Fr - you should know that i

9. A __ __ is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it. __ __ are used as a means of kee

10. A mathematical equation that describes the rate of a chemical reaction. It relates how the rate of a chemical reaction depends on the concentrations of the reactants consumed in that reaction. rate = k[O3]

11. Is a concept in building design that describes how the mass of the building provides 'inertia' against temperature fluctuations - sometimes known as the thermal flywheel effect.

12. Deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical reaction - the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of whole numbers.

13. Is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. It includes the internal energy - which is the energy required to create a system - and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its v

14. Is a property of a system that depends only on the current state of the system - not on the way in which the system acquired that state (independent of path). A state function describes the equilibrium state of a system.

15. Is a thermodynamic potential that measures the 'useful' or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure and is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed syste

16. The amount of heat that must be added or removed during a chemical reaction in order to keep all of the substances present at the same temperature. If the pressure in the vessel containing the reacting system is kept at a constant value - the measure

17. Can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. It can be summarized as: If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration - temperature - volume - or partial pressure - then the equilibr

18. Is an extremely useful quantitative characteristic of a chemical or physical process.

19. Is any substance that works to accelerate a chemical reaction. Catalysts can be organic - synthetic or metal. The process by which the catalyst speeds up or slows a reaction is called catalysis.

20. This __ __ states that if a reaction takes place in several steps then its standard reaction enthalpy is the sum of the standard enthalpies of the intermediate reactions into which the overall reaction may be divided at the same temperature.

21. 1. The negative logarithm of the dissociation constant of an electrolyte. 2. A value equal to the pH at which equal concentrations of the acidic and basic forms of a substance are present.

22. The __ __ works as follows: In a water solution at equilibrium with a slightly soluble ionic compound - the product of the concentration of the ions - raised to the power of its coefficient in the solubility equation - is a constant.

23. With respect to certain reactant is defined as the index - or exponent - to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.

24. Is defined as the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur. Activation energy may also be defined as the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction. The activation energy of a reaction is usually denoted by Ea

25. Is the measure of individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state - which is with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm-3 - and gases at a pressure of 1 atm. The reduction potential is an intensive property. The values ar

26. ___ has a two-part definition: (1)The point at which there is no longer a changed in the concentrations of the reactants and the products of a chemical reaction. (2) The point at which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.

27. Is the collective name associated with the physics of critical points. Most of them stem from the divergence of the correlation length - but also the dynamics slows down. Critical phenomena include scaling relations among different quantities - power

28. Quantitative measure of the acidity or basicity of aqueous or other liquid solutions. The term - widely used in chemistry - biology - and agronomy - translates the values of the concentration of the hydrogen ion into numbers between 0 and 14.

29. ___ measure quantity of substance. There is a subtle ambiguity about treating '___' - whether as 'mass' or 'number'. We take the position that it measures 'amount of substance' - which can be either be expressed in terms of mass or in terms of number

30. A model for gas-phase reactions which assumes that molecules must collide in order to react. This helps to explain why the rate of a reaction is proportional to the reactants in a reaction. As a reaction proceeds in the forward direction - reactants

31. 1.In an equilibrium reaction - even though the reaction proceeds in both directions - the reagents to the left of the arrow are assumed to be the reactants and the reagents to the right of the arrow are assumed to be the products. This is just like a

32. The mathematical product of the partial pressures of the products of a reaction divided by the mathematical product of the partial pressures of the reactants of a reaction AT ANY MOMENT IN TIME.

33. (?H

34. Is the state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time. This state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. The reaction rates of