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CLEP Chemistry: Structure Of Matter

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
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1. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1; the atomic number of carbon is 6. The atomic number is also known as the proton number. It may be represented by the capital letter Z.

2. A ___ ___ is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.

3. Describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of the quantum system. Perhaps the most peculiar aspect of quantum mechanics is the quantization of observable quantities - since quantum numbers are discrete sets of integers or half-integers.

4. A mechanism by which two atoms are held together as the result of the forces operating between them and a pair of electrons regarded as shared by them. In a ___ ___ - the electron pair occupies an orbital located mainly between the two atoms and symm

5. As a general term - the mass of an individual atom; but usually we mean the average atomic mass for the naturally occurring element - expressed in atomic mass units. hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water - H2O.The weight of oxygen has to be eight

6. An ___ is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons - giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge.

7. Bonds formed by the head-on overlap of sp - sp2 - or sp3 hybrid orbitals with each other or with hydrogen 1s orbitals.

8. Bohr proposed that electrons orbited the nucleus - but the electrons contained enough energy to match the electric pull of the protons. This way - the atomic stability would be preserved. He also said that electrons could occupy only certain orbits -

9. A dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition (or state). There are three main types of dispersions: Coarse dispersion (Suspension) Colloid Solution

10. Theory of bonding that states that covalent bonds form through the spatial overlap of orbitals containing valence electrons. Valence bond theory is consistent with the geometric predictions of VSEPR theory.

11. Is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region.

12. It focuses on how the atomic orbitals of the dissociated atoms combine to give individual chemical bonds when a molecule is formed.

13. Was developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.molecular orbital theory has orbitals that cover the whole molecule.

14. The energy level of the electron is one of the things that make one state different from another. Each level - or state - has a specific energy for the electron and a specific set of probabilities for its showing up in various places.

15. Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called ___. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process are called ___. When unstable nuclei dec

16. A ___ ___ is an atom or ion (usually metallic) - bound to a surrounding array of molecules or anions - that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds consist of coordination complexes.

17. An ___ ___ is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation - which is usually a metal - and an anion - which is usually a nonmetal

18. Examples: the isotope effect is used so extensively to investigate chemical mechanisms and the use of cosmogenic isotopes and long-lived unstable isotopes in geology that it is best to consider much of isotopic chemistry as separate from nuclear chem

19. A chemical way to determine the atomic mass of an element is to combine the element with oxygen - determine the mass of the element and oxygen in the compound formed - and determine the number of atoms of oxygen combined per atom of the element.

20. ____ - symbol ? - is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

21. (1) A sample is loaded onto the MS instrument and undergoes vaporization (2) The components of the sample are ionized by one of a variety of methods (e.g. - by impacting them with an electron beam) - which results in the formation of charged particle

22. ___ ___ are molecules that have the same molecular formula - but have a different arrangement of the atoms in space. That excludes any different arrangements which are simply due to the molecule rotating as a whole - or rotating about particular bond

23. Electrons in a (p) orbital (either bonding or nonbonding).

24. That's the number of protons in one atom of a particular element. An undisturbed atom is electrically neutral - so the number of electrons in it is the same as its atomic number. Example:

25. Is the process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particles/radiation. A decay - or loss of energy - results when an atom with one type of nucleus - called the parent radionuclide - transforms to an atom

26. Are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.

27. If you want to refer to a certain isotope - you write it like this: AXZ. Here X is the chemical symbol for the element - Z is the atomic number - and A is the number of neutrons and protons combined - called the mass number. For instance - ordinary h

28. The ___ ___ of a chemical species - i.e. an atom or molecule - is the energy required to remove electrons from gaseous atoms or ions. The property is alternately still often called the ionization potential - measured in volts. In chemistry it often r

29. Is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ___-ed orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of molecular orbitals for molecules. It is an

30. For instance - there are two main isotopes of chlorine: chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. In any given sample of chlorine that has not been subject to mass separation there will be roughly 75% of chlorine atoms which are chlorine-35 and only 25% of chlori

31. __ __-__ __ (_ _ _ _)are regression models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering. Like other regression models - _ _ _ _models relate measurements on a set of 'predictor' variables to the behavior of the response variable.

32. A ___ ___ is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges - either between electrons and nuclei - or

33. Is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles.[1] It is used for determining masses of particles - for determining the elemental composition of a sample or molecule - and for elucidating the chemical structure

34. John Dalton proposed that each chemical element is composed of atoms of a single - unique type - and though they cannot be altered or destroyed by chemical means - they can combine to form more complex structures (chemical compounds). This marked the

35. Is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the ato

36. __ __ are used to represent the decay of one element into another. show atomic # and mass # of particles involved. Mass numbers and atomic numbers are conserved.

37. In chemistry - the ____ ____ is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. The formal oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic. Oxid

38. Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; the different possible versions of each element are called isotopes. For example - the most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons at all; there's also a hydrogen isotope called de

39. The ___ ___ of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms - usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. Since the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity - there ar

40. A ____ is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium) in which the colloid is disper

41. Model for predicting molecular geometry. Based on the idea that - in a molecule - electron pairs arrange themselves as far apart as possible to minimize electron-electron repulsion. The shape of a molecule is determined by the number of electron pair

42. A _____ is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits.

43. The mass number - also called atomic mass number or nucleon number - is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

44. One method is the use of an auxiliary 'mass spectrometer' tube which compensates for fluctuations in both the magnetic field and the source of potential for the deflecting and accelerating plates of the main spectrometer. Ion currents are measured el

45. The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units (amu). It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of differ

46. In chemistry - a ____ is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture - a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance - known as a solvent. The solvent does the dissolving. The solution more or less takes on the charac

47. ___ ____ constitutes the electrostatic attractive forces between the delocalized electrons - called conduction electrons - gathered in an electron cloud - and the positively charged metal ions.

48. ____ is the relative tendency of a bonded atom to attract electrons to itself. An atom with extremely low ____ - is said to be electropositive since its tendency is to lose rather than to gain - or attract - electrons. ______ decreases down a Group i

49. A ___ ___ is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom - such as nitrogen - oxygen or fluorine - that comes from another molecule or chemical group. The hydrogen has a polar bonding to another electronegative atom to c

50. In chemistry - a ____ is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently larger for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer(1mm). The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (flu