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CLEP Chemistry: Structure Of Matter

Subjects : clep, science, chemistry
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A ___ ___ is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.






2. Bohr proposed that electrons orbited the nucleus - but the electrons contained enough energy to match the electric pull of the protons. This way - the atomic stability would be preserved. He also said that electrons could occupy only certain orbits -






3. A ___ ___ - in this article - is a physical model that represents molecules and their processes. The creation of mathematical models of molecular properties and behavior is ___ ___ - and their graphical depiction is molecular graphics






4. ____ is the relative tendency of a bonded atom to attract electrons to itself. An atom with extremely low ____ - is said to be electropositive since its tendency is to lose rather than to gain - or attract - electrons. ______ decreases down a Group i






5. Bonds formed by the head-on overlap of sp - sp2 - or sp3 hybrid orbitals with each other or with hydrogen 1s orbitals.






6. In chemistry - a ____ is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently larger for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer(1mm). The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (flu






7. A _____ is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits.






8. In chemistry - the ____ ____ is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. The formal oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic. Oxid






9. Examples: the isotope effect is used so extensively to investigate chemical mechanisms and the use of cosmogenic isotopes and long-lived unstable isotopes in geology that it is best to consider much of isotopic chemistry as separate from nuclear chem






10. __ __-__ __ (_ _ _ _)are regression models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering. Like other regression models - _ _ _ _models relate measurements on a set of 'predictor' variables to the behavior of the response variable.






11. Is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles.[1] It is used for determining masses of particles - for determining the elemental composition of a sample or molecule - and for elucidating the chemical structure






12. The ___ ___ of a chemical species - i.e. an atom or molecule - is the energy required to remove electrons from gaseous atoms or ions. The property is alternately still often called the ionization potential - measured in volts. In chemistry it often r






13. As a general term - the mass of an individual atom; but usually we mean the average atomic mass for the naturally occurring element - expressed in atomic mass units. hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water - H2O.The weight of oxygen has to be eight






14. One method is the use of an auxiliary 'mass spectrometer' tube which compensates for fluctuations in both the magnetic field and the source of potential for the deflecting and accelerating plates of the main spectrometer. Ion currents are measured el






15. Is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the ato






16. Theory of bonding that states that covalent bonds form through the spatial overlap of orbitals containing valence electrons. Valence bond theory is consistent with the geometric predictions of VSEPR theory.






17. The ___ ___ of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms - usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. Since the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity - there ar






18. (1) A sample is loaded onto the MS instrument and undergoes vaporization (2) The components of the sample are ionized by one of a variety of methods (e.g. - by impacting them with an electron beam) - which results in the formation of charged particle






19. For instance - there are two main isotopes of chlorine: chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. In any given sample of chlorine that has not been subject to mass separation there will be roughly 75% of chlorine atoms which are chlorine-35 and only 25% of chlori






20. The energy level of the electron is one of the things that make one state different from another. Each level - or state - has a specific energy for the electron and a specific set of probabilities for its showing up in various places.






21. A mechanism by which two atoms are held together as the result of the forces operating between them and a pair of electrons regarded as shared by them. In a ___ ___ - the electron pair occupies an orbital located mainly between the two atoms and symm






22. John Dalton proposed that each chemical element is composed of atoms of a single - unique type - and though they cannot be altered or destroyed by chemical means - they can combine to form more complex structures (chemical compounds). This marked the






23. Is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region.






24. Was developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.molecular orbital theory has orbitals that cover the whole molecule.






25. An ___ ___ is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation - which is usually a metal - and an anion - which is usually a nonmetal






26. ___ ____ constitutes the electrostatic attractive forces between the delocalized electrons - called conduction electrons - gathered in an electron cloud - and the positively charged metal ions.






27. Are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.






28. Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called ___. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process are called ___. When unstable nuclei dec






29. ____ - symbol ? - is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.






30. Model for predicting molecular geometry. Based on the idea that - in a molecule - electron pairs arrange themselves as far apart as possible to minimize electron-electron repulsion. The shape of a molecule is determined by the number of electron pair






31. An ___ is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons - giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge.






32. Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; the different possible versions of each element are called isotopes. For example - the most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons at all; there's also a hydrogen isotope called de






33. __ __ are used to represent the decay of one element into another. show atomic # and mass # of particles involved. Mass numbers and atomic numbers are conserved.






34. Is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ___-ed orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of molecular orbitals for molecules. It is an






35. An explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles (atoms). is a theory of the nature of matter - which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms - as opposed to the obsolete notio






36. ___ ___ are molecules that have the same molecular formula - but have a different arrangement of the atoms in space. That excludes any different arrangements which are simply due to the molecule rotating as a whole - or rotating about particular bond






37. Electrons in a (p) orbital (either bonding or nonbonding).






38. If you want to refer to a certain isotope - you write it like this: AXZ. Here X is the chemical symbol for the element - Z is the atomic number - and A is the number of neutrons and protons combined - called the mass number. For instance - ordinary h






39. A chemical way to determine the atomic mass of an element is to combine the element with oxygen - determine the mass of the element and oxygen in the compound formed - and determine the number of atoms of oxygen combined per atom of the element.






40. Formation of hybrid orbitals - which are mixtures of individual atomic orbitals. The number of atomic orbitals used to create a set of hybrid orbitals equals the number of orbitals generated by ______. Hybrid orbitals can hold up to two electrons; ha






41. A ____ is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium) in which the colloid is disper






42. A row of elements across the table is called a period. Each period has a number: from 1 to 7. Period 1 has only 2 elements in it: hydrogen and helium. Period 2 and Period 3 both have 8 elements. Other periods are longer. A column of elements down the






43. The mass number - also called atomic mass number or nucleon number - is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.






44. Even though the total charge on a molecule is zero - the nature of chemical bonds is such that the positive and negative charges do not completely overlap in most molecules. Such molecules are said to be polar because they possess a permanent ___ ___






45. A dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition (or state). There are three main types of dispersions: Coarse dispersion (Suspension) Colloid Solution






46. A ___ ___ is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges - either between electrons and nuclei - or






47. Describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of the quantum system. Perhaps the most peculiar aspect of quantum mechanics is the quantization of observable quantities - since quantum numbers are discrete sets of integers or half-integers.






48. In chemistry - a ____ is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture - a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance - known as a solvent. The solvent does the dissolving. The solution more or less takes on the charac






49. Is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis formula. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing struc






50. A ___ ___ is an atom or ion (usually metallic) - bound to a surrounding array of molecules or anions - that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds consist of coordination complexes.